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By Miranda Green

First released in 1992. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa corporation.

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Seventy eight The male photo determine 33 Altar with hammer image: Nîmes. Musée Archéologique de Nîmes. Width eleven. 5cm. picture: Miranda eco-friendly. The hammer-god of southern Gaul and the decrease Rhône either stone and bronze photographs of the hammer-god during this zone proclaim him as a god of wooded area, crops, wild and household nature. Likewise, hammer symbols seem on altars with dedications to the Roman forest-god Silvanus. Bronze depictions convey a pretty constant picture of a god with the standard institutions of hammer and pot obvious in different places in Gaul, yet with the extra function of a wolf pelt both rather than, or in addition to, a tunic. 10 This wearing of an animal pores and skin publicizes the hammer-god as a wild deity of the geographical region, a hunter might be and a protector opposed to savage beasts. the opposite characteristic of bronze photos is the leaf-crown, which happens, for example, at Orpierre and at Glanum,11 the place the god has an incongruously intricate ringleted hairstyle and a beard handled within the comparable demeanour (Figure 32). seventy nine Symbol and snapshot in Celtic spiritual artwork Stone hammer-god photographs in southern Gaul often take place as small monuments, indicative of modest deepest sanctuaries (Figure 30). yet a number of altars are universal, might be reflecting the presence of a major cult-centre, no matter if patronized through humans of reasonable capacity. therefore the healing-spring shrine of Glanum attracted devotees of the hammer-god, to whom have been committed probably 100 small altars. Glanum is of specific curiosity simply because photographs of the hammer-god himself are sparse, however the inanimate motif of the hammer was once usually carved on little altars and provided to the god. right here the hammer itself used to be the efficacious image. A bronze photo does happen, and in addition a crudely incised reduction of a god with a hammer and pot,12 yet those are a ways outnumbered by way of the straightforward hammer-altars. a few have crude cursive epigraphic dedications to Silvanus; others easily a hammer (the hammer used to be now not an characteristic of the classical Silvanus). specially attention-grabbing is the organization of hammer symbols and human limbs: one altar, for instance (Figure sixty eight) has a hammer at the entrance, an arm and hand carved on one side-surface and a leg at the different. thirteen making an allowance for the presence at Glanum of a spring-sanctuary devoted to ‘Glanis’ the neighborhood spirit, such imagery could replicate a healing-cult and the providing of versions or photographs of bothered elements of the physique to a healing deity in reciprocity, hoping to be healed and given new, complete organs or limbs in trade for these diseased. We might notice this practice at a few of the nice Gaulish thermal shrines, similar to Fontes Sequanae, the place stone and wood versions have been solid into the pool at Sequana’s shrine14 (pp. 156–61). Nîmes is the opposite web site revealing a number of devotion to the hammer-god, the place back a healing-spring sanctuary to Nemausus, the spirit of where, used to be tested lengthy prior to the Roman interval. As at Glanum, photos of the god in human shape, and inanimate symbols of his efficiency, have been provided in worship (Figures 30, 33).

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