By Volkan Kursun
This publication offers an in-depth therapy of varied strength relief and velocity enhancement ideas in keeping with a number of provide and threshold voltages. a close dialogue of the resources of strength intake in CMOS circuits might be supplied while focusing totally on determining the mechanisms in which sub-threshold and gate oxide leakage currents are generated. The authors current a finished evaluation of state of the art dynamic, static provide and threshold voltage scaling ideas and talk about the professionals and cons of provide and threshold voltage scaling thoughts.
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Extra resources for Multi-voltage CMOS Circuit Design
The ahead physique bias is got rid of (by utilizing both a nil physique bias or a opposite physique bias) throughout the standby and burn-in modes to extend the edge voltages, thereby decreasing the subthreshold leakage present , , . THRESHOLD VOLTAGE SCALING sixty seven VDD VSB > zero IDRAIN IDIODE1 CJ1 physique bias IDIODE2 CJ2 zero INET = IDRAIN – IDIODE2 CL determine three. 21 Schematic illustration of a ahead physique biased CMOS circuit. IDIODE1 ¼ sourceto-body junction diode present, IDIODE2 ¼ drain-to-body junction diode present, CJ1 ¼ source-to-body junction capacitance, and CJ2 ¼ drain-to-body junction capacitance the utmost ahead physique bias voltage appropriate to a MOSFET is proscribed by means of diode currents within the ahead biased source-to-body and drain-to-body p–n junctions. The junction diode currents raise the energetic leakage energy in a ahead physique biased circuit. The voltage swing at an output node could be degraded because of those junction diode currents if the ahead physique bias voltage is elevated to successfully activate the physique diodes . furthermore, as proven in determine three. 21, the diode currents oppose the transition of the voltage nation of a node, degrading the potent switching present and accordingly the switching pace. one other aspect impact of the ahead physique bias strategy is the elevated source-to-body and drain-to-body junction capacitances (CJ1 and CJ2 in determine three. 21) with greater ahead physique bias voltages. A p–nþ junction representing the body-to-source and body-to-drain junctions in an NMOS transistor is illustrated in determine three. 22. each one diffusion zone varieties p–nþ junctions with the encompassing substrate (or good) and 3 pþ–nþ junctions with the seriously doped channel cease implant parts in a MOSFET, as illustrated in determine three. 23 . The depletion width of a p–n junction is sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2eSi NA þ ND ð00 À VÞ; xd ¼ q NA ND 00 ¼ kT NA ND ln ; q ni2 ð3:5Þ ð3:6Þ 68 offer AND THRESHOLD VOLTAGE SCALING strategies confident donor ions xd p n+ xn0 xp0 unfavourable acceptor ions Depletion sector acts as an insulator þ determine three. 22 A p–n junction. Xd ¼ width of depletion sector, xp0 ¼ width of transition area into the p-side, and xn0 ¼ width of transition sector into the n-side the place eSi is the dielectric consistent of silicon, okay is the Boltzmann consistent (1. 38 Â 10À23 J=K), T is absolutely the temperature (K), q is the unit cost (1. 6 Â 10À19 C), NA is the acceptor doping focus within the p-side of the junction, ND is the donor doping focus within the n-side of the junction, ni is the intrinsic provider focus of silicon, 00 is the integrated junction strength, and V is the voltage around the p–n junction. V is unfavourable for opposite bias and confident for ahead bias. The depletion capacitance of an abrupt p–n junction is "Si A C j ðVÞ ¼ ¼A xd rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ "Si q NA ND 1 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ; 2 NA þ ND 00 À V ð3:7Þ the place Cj is the p–n junction capacitance and A is the junction zone. A opposite physique bias raises the depletion width within the physique diodes, thereby decreasing the junction capacitances.